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What is Countable and Uncountable noun?

In Modern English Grammar Nouns are broadly divided into two categories-
1. Countable Noun
2. Uncountable Noun

Countable noun is generally Common Noun and Uncountable noun is generally Material noun, Proper noun, Collective noun and Abstract noun.

Look at the example:
The window is made of glass (uncountable)
Please give me a glass of water (Countable)
If Proper noun, Collective noun, Material noun or Abstract noun are used as Common noun, it is consider as a countable noun.

However, a/an/the (article) are used before common noun or countable noun but article should not be used before Uncountable noun.

Examples

Some examples of Countable and uncountable noun

Countable NounUncountable Noun
A tree, a book, a penRice, Water, Milk
A few trees, a few pens A little sand, A little sugar
Many trees, Many pens Much sand, Much sugar.
Some trees, Some pens Some sand, Some sugar.
A lot of trees, A lot of pens A lot of sand, A lot of sugar.

Any is used in both countable and uncountable to make a Question. But some and a lot of are used in response.

Ex: Question: Is there anybody there?
Answer: Yes, There is someone.
Question: Is there any book in the almirah?
Answer: Yes, there is a lot of books.

List of Uncountable Nouns used as countable:

Article/Number + Countable + of + Uncountable

A bag of cement.
Two bags of cement.
Many bags of cement.
Many more bags of cement.
A few bags of cement.
Many packets of sugar.
A few boxes of salt.
Several bottles of honey.
Two tons of coal.
Three pieces of bread.
Four kilos of flour.
Five liters of petrol
Six bales of cotton.
Seven phials of medicine.
Eight wagons of lime stone.

When full is added to a Countable Noun, It becomes ful.

Article/Number + Countable + of + Uncountable

A bagful of sugar.
A spoonful of salt.

Countable Nouns forming a Collective Noun:

A batch of students.
A troop of soldiers.
A gang of robbers.
A band of pilgrims.
A board of directors.
A bundle of pencils.
A flock of birds.
A heap of files.
A pile of books.
A crowd of passengers.
A bunch of keys.
A swarm of bees.
A shoal of fish.
A pack of hounds.
A herd of cows.
A collection of rare books.
A cluster of words.
A gathering of people.
A squad of homeguards.
A galaxy of talents.