AN EXCLUSSIVE ENGLISH TUTORIAL

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What is Narration?

DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH

We can separate any speech into two category -
1. Directspeech
2. Indirect speech
When the speaker says something directly, his speech is direct speech. But when some one else report the speech of a person, it is called indirect speech.
Ex: Subhasis says, ‘ I am ready’.(Direct speech).
Mother said that the dinner was ready (Indirect)

NARRATION

Some Features of Direct and Indirect speech

Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
The direct speech of the speaker remains in inverted commas(‘..’) The speech of the speaker does not remain in inverted commas.
The speech in the inverted commas begins with capital letter.The speech does not begin with capital letter.
After the completion of the speech the signs, as required, have to be given. All the speeches end with full stop(.)
There is no use of inverted commas.
All types of sentences are changed into assertive sentence. There is no use of question mark (?) and exclamation sign (!) in indirect speech.
Sequence of tense (given later) has to be maintained.

Rules

Rules for changing Reporting verbs and Linker

Reporting verbs are used according to the mode and meaning of the sentence, e.g, in case of interrogative sentence the reporting verb is asked or wanted to know etc., in case of imperative sentence the reporting verb may be ordered, requested , advised , as the mode shows. The linkers or the connectives are given in the following table. Most of the confusions will be clear when the examples will be read.

Sentence Reporting verb used Linker
AssertiveSay, tell , report, inform That
InterrogativeAsk, enquire, want to know Yes/No type – if, whether, wh/h-word – what, How, when, why etc.
Imperative Order , request, command, adviseTo
OptativeWish, pray That
ExclamatoryExclaim with joy or sorrow or cry out That

Rules

Rules for changing Personal Pronouns

Direct Indirect
I He
MineHis, her
Me Him
OurTheir
WeThey
You I
Ours Theirs
Us Them
My His

Rules

Rules for changing Tense

If the reporting verb is in the Present or Future tense the verb in the Reported Speech remains the same. But if the reporting verb is in past tense the above rule should be applied.

Direct Indirect
Am,is,are was, were
was, werehad been
Have, hashad
Shall, Will Would
Can Could
Must Had to

Rules

Rules for changing Time and Place

Direct Indirect
now then
last nightthe previous night
ago before
hence thence
today that day
this that
tonight that night
these those
here there
come go
yesterday the previous day
tomorrowthe next day
just then
next weekthe following week